Death of Gaddafi/The National Transitional Council's bloody path

author: 
Astrid Essed

DEATH OF GADDAFI/THE NATIONAL TRANSITIONAL COUNCIL'S BLOODY PATH

''Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him. ''

Article 10, Universal Declaration of Human Rights

http://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Pages/Language.aspx?LangID=eng

''''It is forbidden to kill or injure an enemy who surrenders or who is hors de combat ''

Article 2, Basic rules of International Humanitarian Law in armed conflicts

http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/basic-rules-ihl-311288.htm

The prohibition on executions without trial [summary executions] AND the obligation
to treat prisoners of war humanely is confirmed by article 3, 3th Geneva Convention

http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/375?OpenDocument

INTRODUCTION:

After 42 years the dictatorship of Gaddafi has come to an end
However, the new rulers don't deserve any benefit of the doubt
They didn't trust on the strength of the Libyan people and made alliance with the NATO
which only serve Western interests
With a pro Western regime, the Libyan people can forget any real independence and
social advancement
Regarding human rights they made a bloody beginning with the apparent extrajudicial
execution of Gaddafi and his son Mutassim
Prisoners have been tortured and humiliated
There are vehement racist attacks on African migrant workers and black Libyans
When the situation stays this and those responsible for torture and violence
don't face prosecution, the former Gaddafi dictatorship will be followed by a next one

Dear Editor and readers,

Friday 21 october the world learnt, that former president Muammar Gaddafi, who had ruled
Libya for 42 years, had died [1]
Although the new rulers, the National Transitial Council, claimed, that Gaddafi was killed
in a crossfire, soon news was spread, that he was extrajudicially executed, which was
confirmed by video's [2]
The video images were barbaric and the public exposure of the bodies of Gaddafi, his son
Mutassim and his Defence minister Abu Bakr Younis, were a shame and a disgrace and against International Humanitarian Law
And moreover a huge violation of Islamic burial rules, which commands a burial
within a day.
The bodies were disposed to the public for four days! [3]
But that is not all

When Gaddafi were alive when imprisoned and therefore was a POW [prisoner of war], his
execution was a war crime
According to International Humanitarian Law, article 2 and the 3th Geneva Convention
[regarding the treatment of prisoners of war], article 3, it is strictly forbidden to kill someone, who has surrendered
Also it is an international obligation to treat prisoners of war humanely [4]

Moreover, in International Law any human being has a right to a fair and independent trial
In the case of Gaddafi it was a trial before the International Criminal Court, which had ordered
arrest warrants against him, his son Saif al-Islam and the Intelligence chief
Abdullah al-Sanussi
His son Saif al-Islam has been arrested by the National Transitional Council at 19 november
Two days later, Gaddafi's Intelligence Chief, Abdullah al-Sanussi, were also arrested
Both men are wanted by the ICC on charges of crimes against humanity for their roles in attacks on civilians, including peaceful demonstrators, in Tripoli, Benghazi, Misrata, and other Libyan cities and towns after the start of anti-government protests in eastern Libya on February 15 [5]

The call for an investigation after the circumstances of the death of Gaddafi sounded
from the very beginning from the side of the UN and human rights organisations
Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch [6]
Autopsy showed, that he is killed by a shot in the head and the National Transitional
Council has not only ordered an investigation, but also declared, that those responsible
for the death of Gaddafi, will be prosecuted [7]

His son Mutassim died under the same suspect circumstances
Video images show, that he was still alive, when imprisoned
He was interrogated and a time later he was shot [8]

Guess who is responsible.....................

GADDAFI IS DEAD
THE DEAD CAN'T TALK

The barbaric executions of Gaddafi and his son at the hands of the rebels don't come as a suprise
From the beginning of the uprise, the rebels have committed warcrimes and human rights
violations like the mistreatment and humiliation of prisoners and racist attacks on African migrant
workers and black Libyans, on the pretext, that they were ''mercenaries'' of Gaddafi
This was reported by Human Rights and Amnesty International [9]
After the fall of Sirte Human Rights Watch team found the dead bodies of 53 pro Gaddafi fighters
in a hotel
Apparently they were extrajudicially killed [10]

GADDAFI'S DEATH A RELIEF TO THE WEST
THE DEAD CAN'T TALK

''If he had been brought to trial for his crimes he would have been able to mention all the help he received from Western intelligence services who rendered opponents to his torture chambers or the London School of Economics that helped rehabilitate his image and that of his family's regime.''

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=26466

The big question is, whether the extrajudicial execution of Gaddafi was pure revenge or
to silence him
For Gaddafi knew too much

As the former Western allies of Gaddafi [since 11 september 2001], as those members of
the National Transitional Council, who had belonged to the former Gaddafi regime would
have been seriously embarrassed, when Gaddafi had been brought for the International Criminal Court [11]

For except the dirty deal he and his former friend, the ex Italian prime minister
Berlusconi had closed in order to prevent refugees to come to Europe [12], there were more
shady things
A number of Western States, especially the US and Great Britain deported real or alleged
terrorsuspects to Libya by means of rendition flghts and in Libya they were tortured.
Human Rights Watch has systematically reported this and protested against those
practices [13]
As well as the US and British Intelligence Services cooperated closely with Gaddafi
and informed him about the Libyan opposition [14]
A number of members of the National Transitional Council are former high officials
of the Gaddafi regime.
They would not be happy either with a living Gaddafi, who could tell about their
dirty practices [15]

The Gaddafi deals with the Western rulers and the ex ties of some members of the NTC
[National Transitional Council] are no secret
Otherwise I could not write about it
However, there are always certain secret details, which must be secret to all
the parties involved.
Undoubtedly Gaddafi would have revealed them if he were brought for the ICC

But dead men can't talk
So Gaddafi took al his secrets to his grave in the desert.........[16]

SINCE 11 SEPTEMBER 2001
GADDAFI AS AN ALLY IN THE ''WAR ON TERROR''
GADDAFI'S DIRTY DEALS WITH THE WEST

There were a lot of things the West would rather not seen revealed, when Gaddafi brought to trial.
Since 11 september 2001, Gaddafi, who was a yearlong enemy of the US because of his
real or alleged ties with ''terrorism'' [17], had offered himself to the West as an ally in the
socalled ''war on terror''

Consequences of that new ''friendship'' were the close tie with former colonial power Italy
Gaddafi made a dirty deal with former prime minister Berlusconi to prevent refugees
to come to Europe [18]
So Gaddafi became EU's strong man, protecting Fortress Europe [19]
US and European countries like Great Britain could make a use of Gaddafi's torturerooms
by deporting real or alleged terrorsuspects to Libya on rendition flights
Often those prisoners were first tortured by the CIA [20]

Understandably some members of the National Transitional Council [at first high
members of the Gaddafi regime] don't want their acts to be exposed either [21]

CHARACTER OF THE NATIONAL TRANSITIONAL COUNCIL

''The former rebels form a heterogeneous group of strongly diverting political and ethnic origins. Various former Qadhafi officials joined the opposition either out of opportunism or in search of power conservation. [22]
But also Islamist factions play a role in the former rebels
For example, the leader of the Military Council in Tripoli is Abdelhakim Belhadj, an Afghanistan veteran and leader of the Al Qaida linked LIFG (Libyan Islamic Fighters Group). [23]
The leader of the Cynically enough Belhadj was extradited to Libya by the CIA in 2004, and was then tortured before he was released by an amnesty measure in 2010 [24]

The uprising was of course legitimate as a resistance against the 42 years bloody
dictatorship of the Gaddafi regime
However, the resistance was soon captured by former Gaddafi high officials, who only wanted
a regime change and despite resistance of other rebel factions appealed to Western
military support [25]
Any authentic resistance died, since Western interests were at stake now

GADDAFI AND THE WEST
THE FAIRY TALE OF THE ALTRUISTIC NATO SUPPORT

Writer of this article and others have mentioned from the beginning, that the
NATO help had nothing to do with real concern for the Libyan people, but stems
purely from economic and neo colonial hegenomistic interests [26]
We have emphasized, that the Libyan resistance should rely on own strength [27]

Altruistic Western help is a fairy tale, bought by naive people, but the Western/
NATO history tells a whole different story.
Take for example the NATO bombings in the Kosovo war, with many civilian death
and as result of the war and the ethnic cleansings of 200 000 Serbs and Roma
which have been bagatellised by the West [28]

Two of NATO coutries, the US and Great Britain,
which fullfilled the role of socalled ''benefactors'' are responsible
for the military attacks and occupations of Afghanistan and Iraq, which caused thousands
of civilian deaths by the use of clusterboms and munitions [29]
The idea, that in Libya it would go otherwise is pure nonsense and a bad fairy tale
for children
The death of many Libyan civilians, caused by NATO bombings proved that [30]
There are always naive souls, who believe in the sudden ''goodness'' of the West.
In this case, their ranks were joined by
socalled leftist progessive persons, who should have known better [31]
They were wrong, as the horrible developements in Libya proved

But what exactly were the Western motives to get rid of Gaddafi?

GADDAFI AND THE WEST
WESTERN MOTIVES FOR A REGIME CHANGE

Why the West wanted a regime change in Libya, while Gaddafi was doing the dirty work
as a ''trusted'' ally and the oildeals were satisfactory? [32]

Of course he WAS reliable, but in the eyes of the West he stayed an unpredictable leader.
By supporting the rebellion against him, more reliable pro Western figures could
be brought to power
That was the West's way to control the Arab spring better and to prevent
fundamental changes, at least in Libya.
There were economic interests to protect

NATO SUPPORT COMES WITH A PRIZE

The West had its reason to promote a regime change
That's an explanation why the peace proposals of the AU [African Union]
and the Venezuelan president Chavez [accepted by the Gaddafi regime], have
been rejected by the NATO and the rebels [33]

But for Western help is a prize to be paid and the prize is bitter for the Libyan
people, who didn't ask for this intervention
The West certainly is no friend of the Libyans and only serve its own interests

However, the rebels, who thank their power to the NATO help, gladly
pay the prize, guaranteeing profitable oilcontracts

HELP NATO AFTER GARANTEEING THE OILCONTRACTS

''The West doesn’t have any altruistic aims. It wants to secure oil and business contracts under any new regime and ensure that its economic power in the region is unthreatened. ''

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24186

This quote reveals excellently the NATO political and military role
By the ''successful'' NATO military intervention, the prize for the rebels is controlling
the country
But not after the promise, that the Western oil deals are guaranteed
THIS WAS THE CONDITION UNDER WHICH NATO HELP WAS GIVEN [34]

With the humanitarian card [Responsibility to protect, the ''good'' West
against the ''evil'' Gaddafi] the NATO and its gang sold the military intervention
to the world

But as always, hegemonistic and economical interests were the real reason

NATO INTERVENTION IN LIBYA

It is obvious, that Gaddafi has led a dictatorship, which is responsible for
many human rights violations
As well during his reign as the uprising of the rebels [35]
But also the NATO ''liberators'' and the rebels have blood on their hands

THE BLOODY HANDS OF THE NATO

''Parties to a conflict shall at all times distinguish between the civilian population and combatants in order to
spare civilian population and property. Neither the civilian population as such nor civilian persons shall be the

object of attack. Attacks shall be directed solely against military objectives.''

Article 7, Internationaal Humanitarian Law

http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/basic-rules-ihl-311288.htm

Eager to overthrow the Gaddafi regime, NATO bombed military targets without

any consideration with nearby civilian goals.

Many military targets are located in the vicinity of residential areas.

Especially residential area Bab al-Aziziya, where Gaddafi lived, was target again and again.

According to the Bishop of Tripoli many civilians were killed [36]

Bombing military targets, which are in the vicinity of civilian goals [like
residential areas] is a great risk, since it is very difficult to protect
civilians
When civilians are killed or injured anyway, it is a warcrime, since according International
Humanitarian Law a strict distinction must be made between
combatants [military and fighters] and non-combatants [civilians] [37]

Therefore it is of great importance, that the Public Procesutor of the ICC, Moreno
Ocampo, has announced to investigate real or alleged NATO and rebel warcrimes [38]

THE REBEL ''LIBERATORS'' OF LIBYA
HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS AND WARCRIMES
MISTREATMENTS/EXECUTIONS OF PRISONERS

Despite the allegations of the [former] rebels, to fight for ''democracy'', ''justice'' and to uphold human rights, they have a very poor human rights record concerning their warfare and
treatment of prisoners [of war].

At least hundred gangs of rebelmilitia, from Misrata and the Nasufa Mountains [39]
have made themselves guilty of arbitrary arrests, mistreatments and torture of imprisoned
pro Gaddafi fighters
Other atrocities were extrajudicial executions, rapes, lootings and burnings of houses, belonging to real or alleged Gaddafi supporters
It concerns thousands of prisoners, at least 2500 held in Tripoli and 1100 in Misrata.
According to Amnesty International also children are detained.

Human Rights Watch team found the bodies of 53 killed apparent Gaddafi supporters at an abandoned hotel in
Sirte, who apparently were extrajudicially executed
Ssome had their hands bound behind their backs when they were shot, according
to Mr Peter Bouckaert, emergencies director at Human Rights Watch, who investigated
the killings [40]

REBELS WAR CRIMES
FOR WHAT THE WEST TURNS A BLIND EYE
RACIST ATTACKS ON AFRICAN MIGRANTS AND BLACK LIBYANS

''One hospitalized Tawergha told Human Rights Watch how he was shot in the side and leg and abandoned to die near Hun: “They left us at the edge of the road, put a blanket over us and then started swearing, ‘You are dogs, hope you die.’”

Source:

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/28/murder-brigades-misrata

The human rights violations and warcrimes, which the rebels committed
are horrible and in that the difference between them and the pro Gaddafi troops
is not so big
HOWEVER, STILL MORE DANGEROUS IS THE RACIST
CHARACTER OF THE REBEL CRIMES

For African migrant workers from countries like Chad, Sudan and Mali, as well
black Libyans [descendents of former black slaves] have been tortured, humiliated, raped and extrajudicially executed under the pretext, that they were ''mercenaries''
of Gaddafi
For those allegations hardly any serious evidence has been found [41]]

BUT EVEN IF IT WERE SO, FACT STAYS, THAT PEOPLE ARE BEING ARRESTED, PERSECUTED, HUMILIATED, TORTURED AND EXTRAJUDICIALLY EXECUTED BECAUSE OF THE COLOUR OF THEIR SKIN [42]

ETHNIC CLEANSINGS:

Rebels have also committed ethnic cleansings
A horrifying example is the town of Tawergha

Due to the terror of Misrata militia brigades [beatings, shootings of unarmed citizens, setting houses aflame, arbitrary arrests, deaths in detention] the entire town [of mainly black citizens] has fled to the Juffra region [South of Misrata]
This was exactly the meaning, since militia commanders have declared that the Tawerghans should never return [43]

In the book of the Misrata militia brigades all citizens of Tawergha are held
responsible for real or alleged atrocities of some ''mercenaries''

This terror against black African migrant workers and black Libyans was there since
the beginning of the uprising against Gaddafi and is silenced by Western press [44]

Now these atrocities go from bad to worse and can be compared with real pogroms,
it is finally noticed by the press [45]

Also the press had a bad responsibility in spreading the myth of the ''black mercenaries''
without substantial evidence
Especially Al Jazeera, which has lost its progessive character, was guilty of spreading
those dangerous fairy tales [46]

The National Transitional Council has condemned those atrocities and said to
Amnesty International, that it will restore law as soon as possible [47]
However, as the official Libyan authorities, the NTC is responsible for the militia atrocities
They are obliged to investigate them and bring the abusive members of the militia
to Court.

Also the NATO, which played the main part in supporting the rebels and so bringing the NTC to power, bears a big
responsibility

IT IS THE OBLIGATION OF THE NTC TO PROTECT ALL INHABITANTS OF LIBYA
FROM HARM, REGARDLESS STATUS OR DESCENT'
IT'S THE OBLIBATION, UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW, OF THE REBEL MILITIA
TO TREAT ALL PRISONERS THEY HAVE UNDER CONTROL, HUMANELY
THAT APPLIES ALSO FOR THE NTC, OF COURSE

EPILOGUE

Gaddafi has led a dictatorship and is responsible for a great number of human rights
violations and warcrimes [48]
However, its not a bagatellisation of his atrocities to mention, that
the Libyan people's standard of living is among the top in Africa.
Also he supported freedom movements like the ANC, in the time
that the West considered it as a terroristic organisation [49]

The struggled resistance against the Gaddafi dictatorship was legitimate and could have become a great succes, but has ended in a great political and humanitarian drama

Politically, since resistance didn't trust on own strength, but on Western intervention, which only serves its own, neocolonialistic interests

A humanitarian debacle, since the rebel militia have used the same atrocities, which made Gaddafi a feared leader, partly because of the presence of former Gaddafi officials
Those atrocities also show an ugly racist card, which can cause tension with African
countries

Chaos is in the country, since the NTC, which is divided over maintainance of human rights, seems to have little control over a number of militia

Then we still have the rival ethnic groups that could cause conflict in post Qadhafi Libya and we can not rule out that supporters of the former leader will take up armed resistance. [50]

The NTC will be a willing tool for Western hegemony and considering its bloody start, it is to be feared, that the situation will be not much better than under the former Gaddafi regime [51]

The only hope is, that a real resistance will stand up, challenging Western influence
and their NTC servants
Fighting for economical independence, social justice and based on Freedom, Brotherhood, Equality and Human Rights for all its inhabitants, regardless status or race

Only then, Libya will be really free

Kind greetings
Astrid Essed
Amsterdam
The Netherlands

[1]

AL JAZEERA
MUAMMAR GADDAFI KILLED AS SIRTE FALLS
21 OCTOBER 2011

http://aljazeera.com/news/africa/2011/10/20111020111520869621.html

THE GUARDIAN
GADDAFI KILLED AS SIRTE FALLS
21 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/middle-east-live/2011/oct/20/gaddafi-kil...

[2]

WARNING
BLOODY PICTURES
DAILY MAIL
GADDAFI DEAD VIDEO: DICTATOR BEGS FOR LIFE BEFORE SUMMARY EXECUTION

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2051361/GADDAFI-DEAD-VIDEO-Dicta...

BBC
GADDAFI DEATH: THE BLOODY BIRTH OF A NEW LIBYA
22 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15416019

[3]

WARNING
BLOODY PICTURES
DAILY MAIL
GADDAFI DEAD VIDEO: DICTATOR BEGS FOR LIFE BEFORE SUMMARY EXECUTION

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2051361/GADDAFI-DEAD-VIDEO-Dicta...

EXPOSURE OF GADDAFI'S BODY/FOUR DAYS
Not only humiliating, but against Islamic burial rules, that demand, that a dead body must
be buried within a day

THE INDEPENDENT
LIBYA ENDS PUBLIC SHOWING OF GADDAFI'S BODY
25 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/libya-ends-public-showing...

REUTERS
LIBYA ENDS PUBLIC SHOWING OF GADDAFI'S BODY
24 OCTOBER 2011

http://uk.reuters.com/article/2011/10/24/uk-libya-gaddafi-body-idUKTRE79...

INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS VIEW ABOUT THE PUBLIC EXPOSURE OF
DEAD BODIES

Over the past few days, people with their hands tied have been put on display on vehicles, interrogations of detainees have been filmed by local media, and mortal remains have been exposed to public curiosity...
Our view of these issues is based on the applicable rules of international humanitarian law, for which we endeavour to ensure respect.''

SOURCE:

INTERNATIONAL RED CROSS
LIBYA: DETAINEES AND THE DEAD MUST BE RESPECTED
27 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/interview/2011/libya-intervi...

THE GUARDIAN
GADDAFI BURIED IN SECRET DESERT LOCATION
25 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/oct/25/gaddafi-buried-libya-desert

[4]

ARTICLE 3, 3TH GENEVA CONVENTION
HUMANE TREATMENT OF PRISONERS OF WARAND PROHIBITION TO KILL A PRISONER
OF WAR

''(1) Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be treated humanely,.......
..........................................................
''To this end the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons:
(a) violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;
.....................................
.....................................

http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/375?OpenDocument

See also

www.icrc.org

ARTICLE 1 AND 2, BASIC RULES OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW IN ARMED CONFLICTS

1 - Persons hors de combat and those who do not take a direct part in hostilities are entitled to respect for their
lives and their moral and physical integrity. They shall in all circumstances be protected and treated humanely

without any adverse distinction.

2 - It is forbidden to kill or injure an enemy who surrenders or who is hors de combat .

http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/basic-rules-ihl-311288.htm

[5]

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
LIBYA: Q AND A ON THE ARREST AND SURRENDER OF THE THREE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT SUSPECTS
26 AUGUST 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/08/26/libya-qa-arrest-and-surrender-three-i...

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
ICC MUST END CONFUSION OVER TRIAL OF GADDAFI
24 NOVEMBER 2011

http://www.amnesty.org/en/news/icc-must-end-confusion-over-trial-gaddafi...

INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT
COURSE OF ACTION BEFORE THE ICC FOLLOWING THE ARREST
OF THE SUSPECT SAIF AL-ISLAM GADDAFI IN LIBYA
23 NOVEMBER 2011

http://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/exeres/48F6B130-EC14-4A51-BC79-1CCF8633E270.htm

THE GUARDIAN
SAIF AL-ISLAM GADDAFI CAPTURED IN LYBYA DESERT AS HE TRIES TO FLEE
COUNTRY
19 NOVEMBER 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/nov/19/saif-al-islam-gaddafi-captur...

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
LIBYA: SURRENDER SAIF AL-ISLAM GADDAFI TO ICC
19 NOVEMBER 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/11/19/libya-surrender-saif-al-islam-gaddafi...

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
LIBYA: TRANSFER SAIF AL-ISLAM TO THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT
19 NOVEMBER 2011

http://www.amnesty.org/en/news/libya-transfer-saif-al-islam-internationa...

THE GUARDIAN
GADDAFI'S INTELLIGENCE CHIEF CAPTURED IN SOUTHERN DISTRICT
20 NOVEMBER 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/nov/20/gaddafi-son-pretended-camel-...

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

LIBYA: REPORTED CAPTURE OF ABDULLAH SANUSSI
20 NOVEMBER 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/11/20/libya-reported-capture-abdullah-sanussi

[6]

CNN
UN CALLS FOR GADHAFI DEATH INVESTIGATION
21 OCTOBER 2011

http://edition.cnn.com/2011/10/21/world/africa/libya-main/

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
LIBYA: INVESTIGATE DEATHS OF GADDAFI AND SON
22 OCTOBER 2011

''However, information obtained by Human Rights Watch, as well as videos and photographs apparently taken that day showing both men alive in the custody of anti-Gaddafi forces, indicate that they might have been executed after being detained.''

SOURCE:

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/22/libya-investigate-deaths-gaddafi-and-son

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
LIBYA URGED TO INVESTIGATE WHETHER AL-GADDAFI DEATH WAS A WAR CRIME
21 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/libya-urged-investigate-wheth...

TIME WORLD
AUTOPSY SHOWS GADDAFI KILLED BY SHOT TO HEAD
23 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2097580,00.html

INDIA TODAY
MUAMMAR GADDAFI WAS SHOT IN THE HEAD: AUTOPSY
23 OCTOBER 2011

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/muammar-gaddafi-shot-dead-autopsy/1/1...

[7]

TIME WORLD
AUTOPSY SHOWS GADDAFI KILLED BY SHOT TO HEAD
23 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2097580,00.html

INDIA TODAY
MUAMMAR GADDAFI WAS SHOT IN THE HEAD: AUTOPSY
23 OCTOBER 2011

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/muammar-gaddafi-shot-dead-autopsy/1/1...

THE GUARDIAN
LIBYA BOWS TO CALLS FOR INVESTIGATION INTO GADDAFI DEATH
25 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/oct/24/libya-investigation-gaddafi-...

THE GUARDIAN
GADDAFI KILLER FACES PROSECUTION, SAYS LIBYAN INTERIM GOVERNMENT
27 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/oct/27/gaddafi-killers-face-prosecu...

BBC
THE GADDAFI FAMILY TREE

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12531442

[8]

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
LIBYA: INVESTIGATE DEATHS OF GADDAFI AND SON
22 OCTOBER 2011

''However, information obtained by Human Rights Watch, as well as videos and photographs apparently taken that day showing both men alive in the custody of anti-Gaddafi forces, indicate that they might have been executed after being detained.''

SOURCE:

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/22/libya-investigate-deaths-gaddafi-and-son

''Videos also emerged showing the Colonel’s son Mu’tassim al-Gaddafi, also captured yesterday, lying on a bed in what appears to be a private residence. Wearing a bloodied T-shirt, he bore a neck injury but seemed to be conscious and aware of his surroundings. Later footage showed his lifeless body on a hospital bed. His death should also be independently investigated.''

SOURCE:

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
LIBYA URGED TO INVESTIGATE WHETHER AL-GADDAFI DEATH WAS A WAR CRIME
21 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/libya-urged-investigate-wheth...

[9]

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE
25 AUGUST 2011

http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-mus...

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
LIBYA: CEASE ARBITRARY ARRESTS, ABUSE OF DETAINEES
30 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/30/libya-cease-arbitrary-arrests-abuse-d...

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
LIBYA: STOP ARBITRARY ARRESTS OF BLACK AFRICANS
4 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/04/libya-stop-arbitrary-arrests-black-af...

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
TAWARGHAS MUST BE PROTECTED FROM REPRISALS AND ARBITRARY ARREST
IN LIBYA
7 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/tawarghas-must-be-protected-r...

[10]

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
APPARENT EXECUTION OF 53 GADDAFI SUPPORTERS
24 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/24/libya-apparent-execution-53-gaddafi-s...

[11]

''If he had been brought to trial for his crimes he would have been able to mention all the help he received from Western intelligence services who rendered opponents to his torture chambers or the London School of Economics that helped rehabilitate his image and that of his family's regime.''

SOURCE:

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
GADDAFI'S DEATH IS RELIEF FOR WEST
22 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=26466

''"When a person is shot in the head it is obviously done to simply eliminate him under common accord of several parties involved. They include the so-called rebels led by NATO and the alliance members. Three of them were especially interested in keeping Gaddafi’s mouth shut at the Libyan People’s Court that may be judging the Colonel as it was proposed by Medvedev. They are France, the US and the UK. The Hussein trial showed that doing the same thing with Gaddafi could be a dangerous weapon and the Colonel had a lot to say."

SOURCE:

THE VOICE OF RUSSIA
GADDAFI'S DEATH - PURE ACCIDENT: THE WEST
22 OCTOBER 2011

http://english.ruvr.ru/2011/10/22/59176785.html

[12]

''"Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi and Mu`ammar al-Gaddafi are building their friendship agreement at the expense of people from other countries whom both regard as expendable," said Bill Frelick, refugee policy director at Human Rights Watch. "It looks less like friendship and more like a dirty deal to enable Italy to dump migrants and asylum seekers on Libya and evade its obligations."

SOURCE:

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
ITALY/LIBYA: GADDAFI VISIT CELEBRATES DIRTY DEAL
9 JUNE 2009

http://www.hrw.org/news/2009/06/09/italylibya-gaddafi-visit-celebrates-d...

[13]

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
US/UK: DOCUMENTS REVEAL LIBYA RENDITION DETAILS
8 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/08/usuk-documents-reveal-libya-rendition...

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
OFF THE RECORD: US RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENFORCED DISSAPEARANCES IN THE ''WAR ON TERROR''

http://www.hrw.org/legacy/backgrounder/usa/ct0607/ct0607web.pdf

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
LIBYA/US: INVESTIGATE DEATH OF FORMER CIA PRISONER
11 MAY 2009

http://www.hrw.org/news/2009/05/11/libyaus-investigate-death-former-cia-...

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
UK: TORTURE A RISK IN LIBYA DEPORTATION ACCORD
17 OCTOBER 2005

http://www.hrw.org/news/2005/10/17/uk-torture-risk-libya-deportation-accord

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
US: STOP DETAINEE'S RETURN TO TORTURE IN LIBYA
14 JUNI 2005

http://www.hrw.org/news/2007/06/14/us-stop-detainee-s-return-torture-libya

[14]

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
US/UK: DOCUMENTS REVEAL LIBYA RENDITION DETAILS
8 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/08/usuk-documents-reveal-libya-rendition...

''However, her reference to widespread concern about wrong judgments is likely to be seized on by critics of the way Britain's intelligence agencies co-operated closely with Gaddafi's regime over the "rendition" of dissidents and terror suspects after the Libyan dictator agreed to abandon his chemical and nuclear weapons programme in 2003.''

SOURCE:

THE GUARDIAN
EX MI5 CHIEF'S GADDAFI REGIME RENDITION FEARS
7 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/global/2011/sep/07/mi5-chief-gaddafi-regime-re...

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
BRITAIN AND LIBYA: TORTURED FRIENDS
10 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25973

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
LINKING MI 16, BP, LSE AND LIBYA
10 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25975

[15]

''The former rebels form a heterogeneous group of strongly diverting political and ethnic origins. Various former Qadhafi officials joined the opposition either out of opportunism or in search of power conservation.

SOURCE:

LUDO DE BRABANDER
LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME
6 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time

[16]

BBC
MUAMMAR GADDAFI ''BURIED IN DESERT GRAVE AT DAWN''
25 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15441867

THE DAILY TELEGRAPH
LIBYA: GADDAFI BURIED AT DAWN IN SECRET DESERT GRAVE AS LINE IS
DRAWN UNDER 42 YEARS RULE
25 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/884...

BBC
THE GADDAFI FAMILY TREE

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12531442

[17]

AL JAZEERA
OBITUARY: MUAMMAR GADDAFI
25 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/2011/10/20111020122439605285.html

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
THE MYTH OF GADDAFI THE RADICAL
3 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=25853

[18]

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
ITALY/LIBYA: GADDAFI VISIT CELEBRATES DIRTY DEAL
9 JUNE 2009

http://www.hrw.org/news/2009/06/09/italylibya-gaddafi-visit-celebrates-d...

[19]

FORTRESS EUROPE

http://fortresseurope.blogspot.com/2006/02/immigrants-dead-at-frontiers-...

WORKERS SOLIDARITY MOVEMENT
FORTRESS EUROPE
INCREASED INTEGRATION OF EU ASYLUM AND IMMIGRATION POLICY

http://struggle.ws/wsm/pamphlets/eu/fortress.html

[20]

SEE NOTE 13

[21]

LUDO DE BRABANDER
LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME
6 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time

THE GADDAFI REGIME IS FIGHTING A NATO BACKED WING OF ITSELF
29 APRIL 2011

http://www.stopwar.org.uk/index.php/middle-east-and-north-africa/465-gad...

[22]

SEE NOTE 21

[23]

LUDO DE BRABANDER
LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME
6 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time

[24]

SEE NOTES 11 TILL 14
SEE ALSO

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
US/UK: DOCUMENTS REVEAL LIBYA RENDITION DETAILS
8 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/08/usuk-documents-reveal-libya-rendition...

[25]

THE GUARDIAN
LIBYA IS UNITED IN POPULAR REVOLUTION-PLEASE DON'T INTERVENE
MUHAMMAD MIN LIBYA
1 MARCH 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2011/mar/01/libya-rev...

[26]

COUNTERPUNCH
THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA
31 AUGUSTUS 2011

http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-agai...

MILITARY ACTIONS AGAINST LIBYA/LIBYAN RESISTANCE MUST RELY ON OWN STRENGTH
ASTRID ESSED

http://la.indymedia.org/news/2011/03/245119.php

LUDO DE BRABANDER
LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME
6 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time

PRESS COMMUNIQUE FROM VREDE [DUTCH WORD FOR PEACE] WZW
MILITARY INTERVENTION IN LIBYA? NO THANKS!
10 MARCH 2011

http://www.vrede.be/news/2090-military-intervention-in-libya-no-thanks

LUDO DE BRABANDER
MILITARY INTERVENTION AND LIBYA
9 MARCH 2011

http://www.vrede.be/news/2089-military-intervention-and-libya

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
WESTERN INTERVENTION IN LIBYA MEANS DEVASTATION AND WAR
26 MARCH 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24282

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
LIBYAN REVOLUTIONARIES SPEAK OUT:
''THE WEST'S WARMACHINE WON'T HELP US
5 MARCH 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24090

[27]

MILITARY ACTIONS AGAINST LIBYA/LIBYAN RESISTANCE MUST RELY ON OWN STRENGTH
ASTRID ESSED

http://la.indymedia.org/news/2011/03/245119.php

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
WESTERN INTERVENTION IN LIBYA MEANS DEVASTATION AND WAR
26 MARCH 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24282

COUNTERPUNCH
THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA
31 AUGUST 2011

http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-agai...

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
LIBYAN REVOLUTIONARIES SPEAK OUT:
''THE WEST'S WARMACHINE WON'T HELP US
5 MARCH 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=24090

[28]

WIKIPEDIA
THE NATO BOMBING CAMPAIGN

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosovo_War#The_NATO_bombing_campaign

SOURCE:

WIKIPEDIA
KOSOVO WAR

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosovo_War

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
NATO VIOLATIONS OF THE LAWS OF WAR DURING OPERATION ALLIED FORCE MUST BE INVESTIGATED
JUNE 2000

http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/EUR70/025/2000/en/b2d0e225-df0f-...

''The Serbian government and a number of international pressure groups (e.g. Amnesty International) claimed that NATO had carried out war crimes during the conflict, notably the bombing of the Serbian TV headquarters in Belgrade on April 23, 1999, where 16 people were killed and 16 more were injured. Sian Jones of Amnesty stated, "The bombing of the headquarters of Serbian state radio and television was a deliberate attack on a civilian object and as such constitutes a war crime".[139]''

SOURCE
WIKIPEDIA
THE KOSOVO WAR

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosovo_War

''And at the conclusion of the war 200,000 Serbs and Roma were ethnically cleansed by the western-backed Kosovo Liberation Army--creating a virtually monoethnic Kosovo. ''

SOURCE:

THE SOCIALIST REVIEW
WHAT WAS IT GOOD FOR?
MAY 2003

http://www.socialistreview.org.uk/article.php?articlenumber=8435

THE SOCIALIST REVIEW
KOSOVO: THE MYTH OF LIBERATION
APRIL 2004

http://www.socialistreview.org.uk/article.php?articlenumber=8836

[29]

MILITARY ACTIONS AGAINST LIBYA/LIBYAN RESISTANCE MUST RELY ON OWN STRENGTH
ASTRID ESSED

http://la.indymedia.org/news/2011/03/245119.php

[30]

''A no-fly-zone was installed in the name of protecting civilians that rapidly grew into a bombing campaign which always causes innocent civilian victims. Don't these deaths fall in the category of war crime?''

SOURCE:

LUDO DE BRABANDER
RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT
19 MAY 2011

http://www.vrede.be/news/2121-responsibility-to-protect-

''
A Nato air strike hit a civilian house in Tripoli and killed nine residents, the Libyan regime said yesterday.
Nato admitted on Sunday that its weapons destroyed a house in Tripoli in an incident likely to sow new doubts inside the alliance about its mission in Libya.''

SOURCE:

THE DAILY MAIL
NATO BOMB ''KILL NINE LIBYAN CIVILIANS'' A STRAY AIRSTRIKE IS BLAMED
ON ''SYSTEM FAILURE''
20 JUNE 2011

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2005472/Libya-War-Nato-bomb-kill...

THE WASHINGTON POST
NATO CONFIRMS STRIKE HIT WRONG TARGET, KILLING LIBYAN CIVILIANS

http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle-east/nato-says-strike-may-hav...

THE GUARDIAN
TRIPOLI AIRSTRIKE KILLED 40 CIVILIANS, CLAIMS VATICAN OFFICIAL
31 MARCH 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/31/tripoli-air-strikes-killed-c...

BBC
LIBYA SAYS NATO AIR RAIDS ''KILLED 700 CIVILIANS''
31 MAY 2011

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13611132

REUTERS
TRIPOLI SAYS NATO STRIKE KILLS DOZENS OF CIVILIANS
9 AUGUST 2011

http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/09/us-libya-idUSTRE76Q76620110809

THE NEW YORK TIMES
NATO STRIKES AT LIBYA STATE TV
30 JULY 2011

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/31/world/africa/31tripoli.html?_r=1

CNN
BROTHER OF LIBYA'S INFORMATION MINISTER REPORTED KILLED IN NATO
STRIKE
19 AUGUST 2011

http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/africa/08/18/libya.war/

BBC
WHAT REALLY HAPPENED IN LIBYA'S ZLITAN
11 AUGUST 2011

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14486170

THE DAILY MAIL
BOMBS HIT GADDAFI HOME: NATO STRIKES KILL SON
AND THREE GRANDCHILDREN.........BUT TYRANT NARROWLY ESCAPES
UNHARMED

1 MAY 2011

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1382341/Libya-Nato-strikes-kill-...

FAIR
LIBYAN DEATHS, MEDIA SILENCE
18 AUGUST 2011

http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=4379

[31]

JUAN LA COLE
AN OPEN LETTER TO THE LEFT ON LIBYA
27 MARCH 2011

http://www.juancole.com/2011/03/an-open-letter-to-the-left-on-libya.html

[32]

THE DIRTY WORK GADDAFI DID FOR THE WEST

SEE NOTES 11 TILL 14

[33]

THE INDEPENDENT
LIBYAN REBELS REJECT AFRICAN UNION PEACE PLAN
11 APRIL 2011

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/libyan-rebels-reject-afri...

THE GUARDIAN
LIBYAN REBELS REJECT CHAVEZ MEDIATION OFFER
3 MARCH 2011

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/03/libyan-rebels-reject-hugo-ch...

COUNTERPUNCH
THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA
31 AUGUSTUS 2011

http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-agai...

BBC
WHAT DOES GADDAFI'S DEATH MEAN FOR AFRICA
21 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15392189

[34]

THE NEW YORK TIMES
THE SCRAMBLE FOR ACCESS TO LIBYA OIL WEALTH HAS BEGUN
22 AUGUSTUS 2011

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/23/business/global/the-scramble-for-acces...

FINANCIAL TIMES
REBELS VOW TO OPEN UP LIBYA FOR INVESTMENT
15 JUNI 2011

http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/b97dd138-976d-11e0-af13-00144feab49a.html...

THE SOCIALIST WORKER
OIL FIRMS HIT THE JACKPOT IN LIBYA
1 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/art.php?id=26215

LUDO DE BRABANDER
LIBIE: PAYBACK TIME
6 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time

[35]

WARNING
BLOODY PICTURES

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
LIBYA: EVIDENCE SUGGESTS KHAMIS BRIGADE KILLED 45 DETAINEES
29 AUGUSTUS 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/08/29/libya-evidence-suggests-khamis-brigad...

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
LIBYA: WARRANTS SEND STRONG MESSAGE TO ABUSIVE LEADERS
27 JUNI 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/06/27/libya-warrants-send-strong-message-ab...

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
LIBYA: Q&A ON THE ARREST AND SURRENDER OF THE THREE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT SUSPECTS
26 AUGUSTUS 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/08/26/libya-qa-arrest-and-surrender-three-i...

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
LIBYA: GOVERNMENT USE OF LANDMINES CONFIRMED
30 MAART 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/03/30/libya-government-use-landmines-confirmed

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE
25 AUGUST 2011

http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-mus...

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
NO PLACE OF SAFETY
CIVILIANS IN LIBYA UNDER ATTACK
13 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE19/027/2011/en/12c2a4e5-6c0e-...

[36]

NATO WAR CRIMES IN LIBYA

SEE NOTE 30

SEE FURTHER:

EURONEWS
TRIPOLI BISHOP SAYS DOZEN OF CIVILIANS KILLED
IN WESTERN AIRSTRIKES
31 MARCH 2011

http://www.euronews.net/2011/03/31/tripoli-bishop-says-dozens-of-civilia...

''A no-fly-zone was installed in the name of protecting civilians that rapidly grew into a bombing campaign which always causes innocent civilian victims. Don't these deaths fall in the category of war crime? ''

SOURCE:

LUDO DE BRABANDER
RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT
19 MAY 2011

http://www.vrede.be/news/2121-responsibility-to-protect-

SEE ALSO NOTE 30

[37]

''Parties to a conflict shall at all times distinguish between the civilian population and combatants in order to
spare civilian population and property. Neither the civilian population as such nor civilian persons shall be the

object of attack. Attacks shall be directed solely against military objectives.''

Artikel 7, Internationaal Humanitair Oorlogsrecht

http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/basic-rules-ihl-311288.htm

[38]

RADIO NETHERLANDS WORLDWIDE
ICC TO INVESTIGATE NATO'S LIBYAN OPERATION
3 NOVEMBER 2011

http://www.rnw.nl/english/bulletin/icc-investigate-natos-libyan-operation

THE TELEGRAPH
LIBYA:
NATO TO BE INVESTIGATED BY ICC FOR WARCRIMES
2 NOVEMBER 2011

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/886...

[39]

BACKGROUND]
MISRATA AND NASUFA MOUNTAINS

As well in Misrata as in the Nasufa Mountains, indiscriminate attacks of
pro Gaddafi troops took place

See

Misrata

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/04/17/libya-indiscriminate-attacks-kill-civ...

Nasufa Mountains

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/05/09/libya-end-indiscriminate-attacks-west...

[40]

WARCRIMES OF THE REBELS
TREATMENT OF PRISONERS

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
APPARENT EXECUTION OF 53 GADDAFI SUPPORTERS
24 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/24/libya-apparent-execution-53-gaddafi-s...

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
APPARENT EXECUTION OF 53 GADDAFI SUPPORTERS
24 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/24/libya-apparent-execution-53-gaddafi-s...

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
DETENTION ABUSES STAINING THE NEW LIBYA

http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE19/036/2011/en/e1c30d0f-8ec3-...

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE
25 AUGUST 2011

http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-mus...

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
LIBYA: CEASE ARBITRARY ARRESTS, ABUSE OF DETAINEES
30 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/30/libya-cease-arbitrary-arrests-abuse-d...

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
THE MURDER BRIGADES OF MISRATA
28 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/28/murder-brigades-misrata

[41]

RADIO NETHERLANDS WORLDWIDE
HRW: NO MERCENARIES IN EASTERN LIBYA
2 MARCH 2011

http://www.rnw.nl/africa/article/hrw-no-mercenaries-eastern-libya-0

''The “African mercenary” myth, as put into deadly, racist practice, is a fact that paradoxically has been both documented and ignored. Months ago I provided an extensive review of the role of the mainstream media, led by Al Jazeera, as well as the seeding of social media, in creating the African mercenary myth. Among the departures from the norm of vilifying Sub-Saharan Africans and black Libyans that instead documented the abuse of these civilians, were the Los Angeles Times, Human Rights Watch which found no evidence of any mercenaries at all in eastern Libya (totally contradicting the claims presented as truth by Al Arabiya and The Telegraph, among others such as TIME and The Guardian).''

SOURCE

COUNTERPUNCH
THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA
31 AUGUSTUS 2011

http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-agai...

[42]

WARCRIMES OF THE REBELS
POGROMS AGAINST AFRICAN MIGRANT WORKERS AND BLACK
LIBYANS [DESCENTS OF FORMER SLAVES]

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
LIBYA: STOP ARBITRARY ARRESTS OF BLACK AFRICANS
4 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/09/04/libya-stop-arbitrary-arrests-black-af...

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
DETENTION ABUSES STAINING THE NEW LIBYA

http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE19/036/2011/en/e1c30d0f-8ec3-...

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
LIBYA: MILITIAS TERRORIZING RESIDENTS OF ''LOYALIST'' TOWN
30 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/30/libya-militias-terrorizing-residents-...

''
But black Africans have also been rounded up as alleged mercenaries, on little or no evidence, without being given access to a lawyer.
I saw several dozen of them today being driven through Tripoli, hands bound, blindfolded with cloths of Gaddafi green, in the back of trucks with welded-on anti-aircraft cannon and heavy machine guns.''

BBC
GADDAFI DEATH: THE BLOODY BIRTH OF A NEW LIBYA
22 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15416019

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
TAWARGHAS MUST BE PROTECTED FROM REPRISALS AND ARBITRARY ARREST
IN LIBYA
7 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/tawarghas-must-be-protected-r...

THE ECONOMIST
LIBYA'S BLACK REFUGEES
CAUGHT IN THE MIDDLE
5 MAY 2011

http://www.economist.com/node/18652159?story_id=18652159

FORTRESS EUROPE
REVOLUTIONAIRIES AND RACISTS? THE REBELS' MASSACRES NO ONE WANTS TO TALK ABOUT
19 MAY 2011

http://fortresseurope.blogspot.com/2011/05/revolutionaries-and-racists-r...

One Turkish construction worker told the BBC: "We had 70-80 people from Chad working for our company. They were cut dead with pruning shears and axes, attackers saying: 'You are providing troops for Gaddafi.' The Sudanese were also massacred. We saw it for ourselves."
Libya's new forces for change have simply picked up where the colonel left off his bloodletting.''

SOURCE
BBC
AFRICAN VIEWPOINT: COLONEL'S CONTINENT?
25 FEBRUARY 2011

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12585395

STR8TALK CHRONICLE
LIBYAN INSURGENTS KILL TWO NIGERIANS
19 MARCH 2011

http://str8talkchronicle.com/?p=13153

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE
25 AUGUST 2011

http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-mus...

[43]

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
LIBYA: MILITIAS TERRORIZING RESIDENTS OF ''LOYALIST'' TOWN
30 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/10/30/libya-militias-terrorizing-residents-...

[44]

FORTRESS EUROPE
REVOLUTIONAIRIES AND RACISTS? THE REBELS' MASSACRES NO ONE WANTS TO TALK ABOUT
19 MAY 2011

http://fortresseurope.blogspot.com/2011/05/revolutionaries-and-racists-r...

One Turkish construction worker told the BBC: "We had 70-80 people from Chad working for our company. They were cut dead with pruning shears and axes, attackers saying: 'You are providing troops for Gaddafi.' The Sudanese were also massacred. We saw it for ourselves."
Libya's new forces for change have simply picked up where the colonel left off his bloodletting.''

SOURCE:

BBC
AFRICAN VIEWPOINT: COLONEL'S CONTINENT?
25 FEBRUARY 2011

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12585395

STR8TALK CHRONICLE
LIBYAN INSURGENTS KILL TWO NIGERIANS
19 MARCH 2011

http://str8talkchronicle.com/?p=13153

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
BOTH SIDES IN LIBYA CONFLICT MUST PROTECT DETAINEES FROM TORTURE
25 AUGUST 2011

http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/both-sides-libya-conflict-mus...

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
TAWARGHAS MUST BE PROTECTED FROM REPRISALS AND ARBITRARY ARREST
IN LIBYA
7 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/tawarghas-must-be-protected-r...

[45]

FORTRESS EUROPE
REVOLUTIONAIRIES AND RACISTS? THE REBELS' MASSACRES NO ONE WANTS TO TALK ABOUT
19 MAY 2011

http://fortresseurope.blogspot.com/2011/05/revolutionaries-and-racists-r...

[46]

''The “African mercenary” myth, as put into deadly, racist practice, is a fact that paradoxically has been both documented and ignored. Months ago I provided an extensive review of the role of the mainstream media, led by Al Jazeera, as well as the seeding of social media, in creating the African mercenary myth. Among the departures from the norm of vilifying Sub-Saharan Africans and black Libyans that instead documented the abuse of these civilians, were the Los Angeles Times, Human Rights Watch which found no evidence of any mercenaries at all in eastern Libya (totally contradicting the claims presented as truth by Al Arabiya and The Telegraph, among others such as TIME and The Guardian).''

SOURCE:

COUNTERPUNCH
THE TOP TEN MYTHS IN THE WAR AGAINST LIBYA
31 AUGUST 2011

http://www.counterpunch.org/2011/08/31/the-top-ten-myths-in-the-war-agai...

[47]

AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
DETENTION ABUSES STAINING THE NEW LIBYA

http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE19/036/2011/en/e1c30d0f-8ec3-...

[48]

SEE NOTE 35

[49]

LUDO DE BRABANDER
LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME
6 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time

BBC
WHAT DOES GADDAFI'S DEATH MEAN FOR AFRICA
21 OCTOBER 2011

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15392189

[50]

LUDO DE BRABANDER
LIBYA: PAYBACK TIME
6 SEPTEMBER 2011

http://www.vrede.be/news/2179-libya-payback-time

[51]

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH
TUNISIA: DON'T EXTRADITE FORMER PRIME MINISTER TO LIBYA
9 NOVEMBER 2011

http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/11/09/tunisia-don-t-extradite-former-prime-...